“To Allah is your return, and He has power over all things.'” (Qur’an 11:4)
“His command is only when He intends a thing that He says to it, “Be,” and it is. (Qur’an 36:82)
This means that every ‘thing’ owes its existence it’s ‘being’ it’s ‘isness’ to Allah (swt).
It is impossible for Allah (swt) to be dependent upon that which owes its very being, it’s very existence its very ‘isness’ to Allah (swt).
The Atheist will often pose the following paradoxical question. If Allah is Infinite and Unlimited in Power can He create a rock he cannot lift?
A paradox is something seemingly absurd, self-contradictory or improbable.
It is like asking if Allah(swt) can make a squared circle. It is a no-thing. It is a non-question. First, when we are talking about Allah(swt) it is obvious that there has to be that which makes God, “God”.
Based on logic there are things that can not exist if another thing exists. Allah acts consistently within his own essence, his own being.
Allah(swt) cannot act contrary to his being. Allah cannot for example Not-Be Allah. The very idea is a no-thing. Allah(swt) cannot be a sinner or be unholy. The very idea is a no-thing. Allah(swt) cannot commit shirk. The very idea is a no-thing. Allah(swt) cannot be contained by space/time. The very idea is a no-thing. All these things are inherent to the divine logic contained with Allah(swt).
As Allah(swt) is Infinite and Unlimited in Power, a thing he can not do cannot exist because it violates the very principle of being Infinite and Unlimited in Power. Such a rock can’t exist not because Allah(swt) is not All-Powerful but because He is! Allah(swt) has Unlimited, Infinite Powers. This theoretical rock would also have to have MORE than infinite and unlimited powers so that Allah(swt) could not move it. There’s no such thing as beyond infinite and unlimited so the question is flawed. Infinity +1. There is no such thing, there is simply infinity.
This is how you interact with those who pose paradoxical questions. Some people may also say, “There is no truth and nothing is true.” The response to that is: “Is that true?” Because if “There is no truth and nothing is true” that very statement could be false; which means there is truth.
If some people say, “We can’t know anything for certain” that also is a problematic statement. It is problematic because the statement: “We can’t know anything for certain” can’t be certain. Which means that it is possible to be certain about things.