“And say to the believing women that they are lower their gaze and guard their sexual organs; and that they are not to display their ornaments except for what appears thereof. And let them draw their head coverings (bikhumurihinna) over their bosoms.” (Qur’an 24:31)
“O Prophet! Say to your wives, your daughters, and the women of the believers that they are to cast their over-garments over them. That is more convenient, that they be recognized, so that they won’t be molested.” (Qur’an 33:59)
I would encourage readers to read this very excellent and brief over view of the topic here:
This was a panel I did for the Sultan Masjid ‘mini-gallery‘ in Singapore. It is the first ‘mini-gallery‘ in any masjid any where. Al hamdulilah.
“And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what must ordinarily appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband’s fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O you Believers! turn you all together towards Allah, that you may attain Bliss.” (Qur’an 24:31)
As our position is Prima-Qur’an we take primarily from the Qur’an. We also believe that the Blessed Messenger (saw) explained the Qur’an to his people.
“And obey Allah and obey the Messenger. But if you turn away, then Our Messenger is responsible only for conveying the message clearly. (Qur’an 64:12)
In a world of nihilism and postmodernism, there can be a lot of pressures upon any faith tradition to amalgamate and transform their faith into something ‘more acceptable’ to an increasingly secularized world.
I feel the issue of the women’s khimar is one such issue. It seems to me that many who follow the ‘Qur’an only’ religion and post-modern Muslim groups really struggle with this. Their disparate interpretations are only a reflection of this reality.
It has reached us as Muslims across the sectarian divide that a Muslim woman covers all but the hands and face.
That is to say the Shi’a, the Sunni, and Ibadi have all concurred on this. In fact, the only debate within the community is if she should cover more than this, meaning -the face veil.
Where I feel the postmodern Muslims do not ponder deeply enough is on the ‘default dress’. When this verse above was being revealed, what was the ‘default dress’ of the people of that time? What was the basic ‘skeleton’ if you will?
This is what has led many who follow the ‘Qur’an only’ religion and post modern Muslims to leave open the possibility of wearing skirts, or even tight and revealing clothing. It really seems that we could offer a better response than to simply cave in completely to postmodernism. It may be cliché but a saying comes to mind, ‘If you do not stand for something you will fall for anything.’
It would be one thing if those who follow the ‘Qur’an only’ religion and postmodernist Muslims completely capitulated to western liberalism on this issue. That in and of itself would not be so problematic. However, what is problematic is the real disdain they have for Muslim women who choose to continue to observe the khimar as explained by the Blessed Messenger (saw) and preserved in the mass transmitted Sunnah. Some of their rhetoric can be frightening for ‘enlightened’ people.
Some of them take the term ‘zeenatahhunna’ (ornaments) to mean ‘thighs’ ‘breast’ ‘backside’ etc. They even then say things like, “This expression may sound vague to many because they have not understood the Mercy of Allah.”
In other words: ‘If you do not agree without interpretation of zeenatahhunna than don’t blame us for your short-sightedness‘!
“Such elderly women as are past the prospect of marriage, there is no blame on them if they lay aside their (outer) garments (Arabic: Thiyabahunna), provided they do not display their beauty/adornment. But it is best for them to modestly refrain: and God is One Who sees and knows all things” (Qur’an 24:60)
It can be a normal garment and an outer garment. (11:5; 24:58).
In verse 24:60, we clearly note that an older woman is permitted to remove this ‘thobe’ without wanton display of their beauty. This cannot refer to her normal garments as if this were to be removed she would be left exposed.
“O Prophet, tell your wives, your daughters, and the wives of the believers that they shall lengthen their garments. Thus, they will be recognized and avoid being molested. Allah is Forgiver, Most Merciful.” (Qur’an 33:59)
“The women may relax (their dress code) around their fathers, their sons, their brothers, the sons of their brothers, the sons of their sisters, the other women, and their (female) servants. They shall reverence Allah. Allah witnesses all things.” (Qur’an 33:55)
I would also like to point out to the reader’s something in regards to the following:
“O Prophet! Say to your wives, your daughters, and the women of the believers that they are to cast their over-garments over them. That is more convenient, that they be recognized so that they won’t be molested.” (Qur’an 33:59)
It should be pointed out that Shaykh Abdullah bin Bayyah (a highly respected scholar of the Sunni denomination) in Islam gave a fatwa-legal verdict after the events of 9-11 and gave Muslim women a dispensation to not wear the headscarf. The legal maxim and reasoning where that Allah (swt) says above: “That they won’t be molested.” However; if they become molested and abused because of it then the hukum (the wisdom in the legal ruling) is defeated. *
*Note (If anyone can find the exact source and text of this Fatwa I would be grateful.)
I would also encourage sisters and brothers to check out the excellent work the sisters are doing over here:
9 responses to “Khimar (Head Covering) is an injunction with in the Qur’an.”
Assalamu ‘alaykum dear brother,
In the link you gave it’s written that the semantic root of the word indicates something that covers, but without saying what part of the body. Also the Qur’an doesn’t mention the head in any description of the women’s moral and wearing conduct, as long as I know.
Where’s a reference that indicates the kind of khimar is weared today, a scarf or a cloth covering the whole head of the woman and also ears and neck? The aya of the Qur’an about the khimar indicates the covering of the bosom: we can take from it an injuction to use the head-cover or just a not defined cloth that covers, or “khamara”?
Sorry if the tone is a little polemic, but i cannot prevent it, that one is a hot topic.
Walakum salaam wr wb respected brother.
“In the link you gave it’s written that the semantic root of the word indicates something that covers, but without saying what part of the body.”
You are correct in that it says something which covers but does not specify what part of the body.
This is why they have deduced the meaning by looking at the following verses and what is asked to be covered.
“The khimar originates from the trilateral verb `khamara’, which means `ghatta’—to conceal, hide, or cover up something. As for khimar, Imam Fayyumi says,
“THE KHIMAR IS A GARMENT BY WHICH A WOMAN COVERS UP HER HEAD, the plural of which is `khumur’ as in `kitab’ and `kutub.’” Allah says, “And let them draw their HEADCOVERINGS (khumur) over their bosoms (juyub)” [Nur: 31].
The Imam is deducing the meaning by looking at the context of the entire verse.
I have typed in capital letters.
“Headcoverings” is “not” in the Arabic text…the word ‘Khimar’ is. Notice I put the word not in quotes. I am reluctant to say that it is not because of the context.
When the Imam says, “THE KHIMAR IS A GARMENT BY WHICH A WOMAN COVERS UP HER HEAD.” It may have been more precise to say….
“The KHIMAR has come to take on the meaning of a garment that women placed over their head.”
“Also the Qur’an doesn’t mention the head in any description of the women’s moral and wearing conduct, as long as I know.”
The article has deduced that based upon the context. For example one could argue that the Qur’an does not mention a woman covering her legs, thighs or even the vagina!
Yet one may wonder what would be accomplished by covering the ‘Juyub’ and not covering the vagina.
Yet what the Imam has given is the context and how the meaning has encompassed this understanding.
Like if you notice they didn’t translate the word ‘hijab’ as ‘head scarf’. They have given the lexical meaning and than that which it has come to encompass.
“Where’s a reference that indicates the kind of khimar is weared today, a scarf or a cloth covering the whole head of the woman and also ears and neck?”
This was deduced by analyzing the word meaning the ascription it has come to take on that meaning or it is a meaning that would readily be understood by the people of that time.
Take for example the word ‘sick’.
We understand it as someone who is not feeling well.
Yet in youth culture today people say, ‘That motorcycle is sick!’. It is understood as being ‘cool’ , ‘awesome’ etc…
“The aya of the Qur’an about the khimar indicates the covering of the bosom: we can take from it an injuction to use the head-cover or just a not defined cloth that covers, or “khamara”?” ….
Well we know that the ‘khimar’ is to go over the ‘juyub’. At this point we couldn’t even establish that ‘juyub’ is bosom if we want to use literal definitions to define.
The word ‘bosom’ or breast occurs some 40 plus times in the Holy Qur’an. This is not one of them.
Following this train of thought we also cannot say that women shouldn’t wear skirts, cut off shorts, hip hiphuggers, bikini, …..which again makes one wonder.
“Sorry if the tone is a little polemic, but i cannot prevent it, that one is a hot topic.”
No worries brother. I appreciate the comments. I apologize if I cannot get back to everyone as soon as they like.
If it takes a polemical tone Al hamdulillah, these are matters of faith and we should feel passionately about them.
We should all keep in mind if terse words are exchanged that Al hamduillah Islam is a faith that allows for reconciliation and looking beyond short comings.
You mentioned “The article has deduced that based upon the context. For example one could argue that the Qur’an does not mention a woman covering her legs, thighs or even the vagina!”
Quran does mention to cover vagina (sexual organs) and surrounding, please see your quoted verse above “And say to the believing women that they are lower their gaze and guard their sexual organs; and that they are not to display their ornaments except for what appears thereof. And let them draw their head coverings (bikhumurihinna) over their bosoms.” (Qur’an 24:31)
You mentioned “head covering” in above translation; Khimar is not a head covering, but only a cover
This is why it is important to understand what “bikhumurhinna” meant to those who read it. You could have a head cover and leave your bosom exposed. Allah (swt) is telling the believing women to take their “bikhumurhinna” which is their head coverings and cover their bosoms with that. We are talking about a culture where women did indeed cover their hair. If you were a Bedouin or lived in a place with frequent sand storms what would be your DEFAULT clothing?
I am curious where you get the idea that women should cover their legs since your side wants to linguistically argue that the Qur’an doesn’t say to cover the head leaving out the default position of women’s clothing at the time. The Creator is all wise.
So where would you linguistically show us the Qur’an specifically says, legs? If not it is deducted based upon the default clothing.
What Arabic word says “head”? Or “hair” in the verse?
I am not aware that any do.
Asalamu Alaikum, I read somewhere (Reddit) that Ibadis consider the Niqab/ Burqa to be a Zoroastrian innovation, therefore, making it haraam for Muslim women to wear the niqab. Is this true? what are the Ibadi opinions on the niqab? As in Tanzania Ibadi sisters tend to wear the niqab.
walakum salaam wr wb, Shaykh Jumaa Al Mazrui would be the one to ask about this.
It is also possible that those who are wearing Niqaab in East Africa are doing so either to the Shafi’i school’s influence and/or it is due to the fact that they feel it is valid within the school. Insh’Allah I will try and find out about this and/or blog about it as well.
Bismillah ir rahman ir raheem, respected sister I have reached out to our teacher Shaykh Jumaa Al Mazruii and it was an occasion to write a brief article on the subject as well. May Allah (swt) reward you.